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by University of Houston. Program on Law and Technology Publisher: Praeger Release Date: 1988 Genre: Computers Pages: 392 pages ISBN 13: ISBN 10: STANFORD:36105044057904 Format: PDF, ePUB, MOBI, Audiobooks, Kindle
Synopsis : Computer Power and Legal Language written by University of Houston. Program on Law and Technology, published by Praeger which was released on 1988. Download Computer Power and Legal Language Books now! Available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Program on Law and Technology Charles Walter. proposals for addition to the contract ] . [ e : between merchants such terms become part of the contract ] unless : ( a ) [ f : the offer expressly limits acceptance to the terms of the ... -- Updated papers from the Second Annual Conference on Law and Technology held June 24-28, 1985 at the University of Houston and sponsored by the University of Houston Law Center Program on Law and Technology.
Authors: University of Houston. Program on Law and Technology
Type: BOOK - Published: 1988 - Publisher: Praeger
Updated papers from the Second Annual Conference on Law and Technology held June 24-28, 1985 at the University of Houston and sponsored by the University of Houston Law Center Program on Law and Technology.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1990-05-15 - Publisher: CRC Press
"This comprehensive reference work provides immediate, fingertip access to state-of-the-art technology in nearly 700 self-contained articles written by over 900 international authorities. Each article in the Encyclopedia features current developments and trends in computers, software, vendors, and applications...extensive bibliographies of leading figures in the field, such as Samuel Alexander, John von Neumann, and Norbert Wiener...and in-depth analysis of future directions."
Type: BOOK - Published: 1998 - Publisher: Intellect Books
This text examines the interaction between the disciplines of law, computer science and artificial intelligence. The chapters are grouped into theory, implications and applications sections, in an attempt to identify separate, but interrelated methodological stances.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2006-03-06 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The gap between information technology and the legal profession is narrowing, in particular due to the Internet and the richness of legal sources that can be found online. This book further bridges the gap by showing people with a legal background what is possible with Information Technology now and in the near future, as well as by showing people with an IT background what opportunities exist in the domain of law.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1993-04-29 - Publisher: Australian National Univ.
Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. But the utility of a legal expert system lies not in the extent to which it simulates a lawyer’s approach to a legal problem, but in the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. A complex model of legal reasoning is not necessary: a successful legal expert system can be based upon a simplified model of legal reasoning. Some researchers have based their systems upon a jurisprudential approach to the law, yet lawyers are patently able to operate without any jurisprudential insight. A useful legal expert system should be capable of producing advice similar to that which one might get from a lawyer, so it should operate at the same pragmatic level of abstraction as does a lawyer—not at the more philosophical level of jurisprudence. A legal expert system called SHYSTER has been developed to demonstrate that a useful legal expert system can be based upon a pragmatic approach to the law. SHYSTER has a simple representation structure which simplifies the problem of knowledge acquisition. Yet this structure is complex enough for SHYSTER to produce useful advice. SHYSTER is a case-based legal expert system (although it has been designed so that it can be linked with a rule-based system to form a hybrid legal expert system). Its advice is based upon an examination of, and an argument about, the similarities and differences between cases. SHYSTER attempts to model the way in which lawyers argue with cases, but it does not attempt to model the way in which lawyers decide which cases to use in those arguments. Instead, it employs statistical techniques to quantify the similarity between cases. It decides which cases to use in argument, and what prediction it will make, on the basis of that similarity measure. SHYSTER is of a general design: it can provide advice in areas of case law that have been specified by a legal expert using a specification language. Hence, it can operate in different legal domains. Four different, and disparate, areas of law have been specified for SHYSTER, and its operation has been tested in each of those domains. Testing of SHYSTER in these four domains indicates that it is exceptionally good at predicting results, and fairly good at choosing cases with which to construct its arguments. SHYSTER demonstrates the viability of a pragmatic approach to legal expert system design.
Categories: Droit - Australie - Méthodologie - Informatique
Type: BOOK - Published: 1996-05-21 - Publisher: Dartmouth (Ashgate)
Most legal expert systems attempt to implement complex models of legal reasoning. This book argues that a complex model is unnecessary. It advocates a simpler, pragmatic approach in which the utility of a legal expert system is evaluated by reference, not to the extent to which it simulates a lawyer's approach to a legal problem, but to the quality of its predictions and of its arguments. The author describes the development of a legal expert system, called SHYSTER, which takes a pragmatic approach to case law. He discusses the testing of SHYSTER in four different and disparate areas of case law, and draws conclusions about the advantages and limitations of this approach to legal expert system development. Chapter 1 presents a critical analysis of previous work of relevance to the development of legal expert systems. Chapter 2 explains the pragmatic approach that was adopted in the development of SHYSTER. The implementation of SHYSTER is detailed using examples in chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes the testing of SHYSTER, and conclusions are drawn from those tests in chapter 5. Examples of SHYSTER's output are provided in appendices.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013-06-17 - Publisher: Psychology Press
Many existing information retrieval (IR) systems are surprisingly ineffective at finding documents relevant to particular topics. Traditional systems are extremely brittle, failing to retrieve relevant documents unless the user's exact search string is found. They support only the most primitive trial-and-error interaction with their users and are also static. Even systems with so-called "relevance feedback" are incapable of learning from experience with users. SCALIR (a Symbolic and Connectionist Approach to Legal Information Retrieval) -- a system for assisting research on copyright law -- has been designed to address these problems. By using a hybrid of symbolic and connectionist artificial intelligence techniques, SCALIR develops a conceptual representation of document relationships without explicit knowledge engineering. SCALIR's direct manipulation interface encourages users to browse through the space of documents. It then uses these browsing patterns to improve its performance by modifying its representation, resulting in a communal repository of expertise for all of its users. SCALIR's representational scheme also mirrors the hybrid nature of the Anglo-American legal system. While certain legal concepts are precise and rule-like, others -- which legal scholars call "open-textured" -- are subject to interpretation. The meaning of legal text is established through the parallel and distributed precedence-based judicial appeal system. SCALIR represents documents and terms as nodes in a network, capturing the duality of the legal system by using symbolic (semantic network) and connectionist links. The former correspond to a priori knowledge such as the fact that one case overturned another on appeal. The latter correspond to statistical inferences such as the relevance of a term describing a case. SCALIR's text corpus includes all federal cases on copyright law. The hybrid representation also suggests a way to resolve the apparent incompatibility between the two prominent paradigms in artificial intelligence, the "classical" symbol-manipulation approach and the neurally-inspired connectionist approach. Part of the book focuses on a characterization of the two paradigms and an investigation of when and how -- as in the legal research domain -- they can be effectively combined.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-06-15 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book provides an overview of computer techniques and tools — especially from artificial intelligence (AI) — for handling legal evidence, police intelligence, crime analysis or detection, and forensic testing, with a sustained discussion of methods for the modelling of reasoning and forming an opinion about the evidence, methods for the modelling of argumentation, and computational approaches to dealing with legal, or any, narratives. By the 2000s, the modelling of reasoning on legal evidence has emerged as a significant area within the well-established field of AI & Law. An overview such as this one has never been attempted before. It offers a panoramic view of topics, techniques and tools. It is more than a survey, as topic after topic, the reader can get a closer view of approaches and techniques. One aim is to introduce practitioners of AI to the modelling legal evidence. Another aim is to introduce legal professionals, as well as the more technically oriented among law enforcement professionals, or researchers in police science, to information technology resources from which their own respective field stands to benefit. Computer scientists must not blunder into design choices resulting in tools objectionable for legal professionals, so it is important to be aware of ongoing controversies. A survey is provided of argumentation tools or methods for reasoning about the evidence. Another class of tools considered here is intended to assist in organisational aspects of managing of the evidence. Moreover, tools appropriate for crime detection, intelligence, and investigation include tools based on link analysis and data mining. Concepts and techniques are introduced, along with case studies. So are areas in the forensic sciences. Special chapters are devoted to VIRTOPSY (a procedure for legal medicine) and FLINTS (a tool for the police). This is both an introductory book (possibly a textbook), and a reference for specialists from various quarters.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2006-03-30 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit. Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form of open texture, transformation using argumentation concepts and evaluation and deployment approaches are discussed at length.
Type: BOOK - Published: 1999-10-19 - Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
This volume is a presentation of all methods of legal knowledge representation from the point of view of jurisprudence as well as computer science. A new method of automatic analysis of legal texts is presented in four case studies. Law is seen as an information system with legally formalised information processes. The achieved coverage of legal knowledge in information retrieval systems has to be followed by the next step: conceptual indexing and automatic analysis of texts. Existing approaches of automatic knowledge representations do not have a proper link to the legal language in information systems. The concept-based model for semi-automatic analysis of legal texts provides this necessary connection. The knowledge base of descriptors, context-sensitive rules and meta-rules formalises properly all important passages in the text corpora for automatic analysis. Statistics and self-organising maps give assistance in knowledge acquisition. The result of the analysis is organised with automatically generated hypertext links. Four case studies show the huge potential but also some drawbacks of this approach.